Spooling is more efficient tha buffering. Buffering is less efficeint than spooling. Size Spooling considers disk as a huge spool or buffer. Buffer is a limited area in main memory.
For example, a program that reads a file as input should be able to read a file on a floppy disk, on a hard disk, or on a CD-ROM, without having to modify the program for each different device.
Device Drivers Device drivers are software modules that can be plugged into an OS to handle a particular device. Device driver, is generally written by the device's manufacturer and delivered along with the device on a CD-ROM.
Suppose a request comes to read a block N. If the driver is idle at the time a request arrives, it starts carrying out the request immediately.
Otherwise, if the driver is already busy with some other request, it places the new request in the queue of pending requests. Interrupt handlers An interrupt handler, also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a piece of software or more specifically a callback function in an operating system or more specifically in a device driver, whose execution is triggered by the reception of an interrupt.
When the interrupt happens, the interrupt procedure does whatever it has to in order to handle the interrupt, updates data structures and wakes up process that was waiting for an interrupt to happen.
In most architectures, this address is an offset stored in a table called the interrupt vector table. This vector contains the memory addresses of specialized interrupt handlers. Though it is difficult to write completely device independent software but we can write some modules which are common among all the devices.
Following are some of the services provided. Buffering is done to cope with a speed mismatch between the producer and consumer of a data stream or to adapt between devices that have different data transfer sizes.
Access to the cached copy is more efficient than access to the original. The spooling system copies the queued spool files to the printer one at a time. In some operating systems, spooling is managed by a system daemon process.
In other operating systems, it is handled by an in kernel thread.MAKO DATA MINING INTRODUCTION: Data mining is the analysis step of knowledge discovery in databases or a field at the intersection of computer science and statistics.
It is also the analysis of large observational datasets to find unsuspected relationships. Typically, the data is stored in a buffer as it is retrieved from an input device (such as a keyboard) or just before it is sent to an output device (such as a printer).
However, a buffer may be used when moving data between processes within a computer. Documents Similar To Buffering & Spooling. what is a HMM. Uploaded by. afsana_shimu. Spooling refers to putting data of various I/O jobs in a buffer.
This buffer is a special area in memory or hard disk which is accessible to I/O devices. An operating system does the following activities related to distributed environment −.
Data deleted when the computer crashes or switches off. storage where your files and computer programs are kept permanently so that you can get hold of them at any time.
• Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run iridis-photo-restoration.comre and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology.
do our accounting.5/5(1). kSar v3Launching kSar 2 Grabbing statistics 3 Managing graphs 4 Exporting graphs to PDF.