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George Essay Alexander L. George Essay Alexander George — was an American political scientist and scholar of international relations. He saw the role of the political scientist in a democratic polity as that of scholar-advisor to the policy maker. He was particularly concerned about the origin of foreign policy crisis and the management of crisis abroad by democracies.
At the heart of this management advice was international relations theory, which he differentiated in terms of substance and process. It was always tied to specific historical events such as the Korean War — or the termination of World War I — Motivation for the development of such theory stemmed from the practical desire to understand why wars started, how they ended, or whether important diplomatic signals were missed.
Process theory involved the attempt to improve the quality of foreign policy decision making.
George rejected the assumption that all decision making was necessarily rational. Moreover, process theory distinguished two kinds of decision-making rationality: Normative considerations could, and sometimes might have to, enter into theory via process.
While at the Rand Corporation from toand later at Stanford University, George focused on an evaluation of deterrence theory and its operation during crises such as the Cuban missile crisis, during which the Soviet Union sought to place missile installations in Cuba during the cold war arms race.
George tackled the subtleties of concept with very precise language. George preferred the notion of coercive diplomacy, because he believed that it preserved the distinction between offensive and defensive uses of coercive threat, a conceptual delineation that ultimately held great significance for strategic literature.
He also offered a profound critique of structural realism.
Second, George claimed that structural realism ignored the asymmetry of motivation that often allowed weaker states to eclipse the greater power of a stronger state. Third, he noted that the greater scope of interests of the larger state, often proposed as a positive characteristic of great power diplomacy, was actually a liability, because it discouraged focus and concentration of resources to achieve a maximum payoff.
Instead of neorealist, game theoretical, or rational choice interpretations of international politics, George advocated a three-fold approach to strategic assessment.
A model of actor-specific behavior was also essential. All of this had to incorporate specific intelligence and information as well if it was to be of assistance to the policy maker.
In the end, George was an influential voice favoring policy-relevant knowledge in international relations that would help prevent as well as manage foreign policy crises.
Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy. Institute of Peace Press, Limits of Coercive Diplomacy. Presidential Decision-making in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice.Economic Diplomacy European Union’s economic diplomacy Within the financial crisis Since the European crisis began as a logical flow of the sub prime’s crisis which has started in , reached Europe in when Greece revealed its huge but real deficit and debt, it is interesting to focus on the financial crisis in Europe in terms of economic diplomacy.
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The traditional understanding of both international crisis and crisis diplomacy leaves policy makers and diplomats with the wrong means for out-dated ends .
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It is therefore necessary to revise these definitions so as to enhance their ability to explain contemporary events. Nov 24, · Cuban missile crisis essay conclusions.
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This essay will focus on the organisations involved in Libya and will discuss the diplomatic intervention that the organisations used in the Libyan crisis. The essay will firstly define the important factors and explain how everything works together.
Diplomacy is defined as the conducting of negotiations between representatives of states.