Thomas Pogge[ edit ] Thomas Pogge 's arguments pertain to a standard of social justice that creates human rights deficits. He assigns responsibility to those who actively cooperate in designing or imposing the social institution, that the order is foreseeable as harming the global poor and is reasonably avoidable. Pogge argues that social institutions have a negative duty to not harm the poor.
Medical and Social Aspects Warren M. Abortion is one of the most difficult, controversial, and painful subjects in modern American society. The principal controversy revolves around the questions of who makes the decision concerning abortion — the individual or the state; under what circumstances it may be done; and who is capable of making the decision.
Medical questions such as techniques of abortion are less controversial but are sometimes part of the larger debate.
Abortion is not new in human society. A study by anthropologist George Devereux showed that more than three hundred contemporary nonindustrial societies practiced abortion. Women have performed abortions on themselves or experienced abortions at the hands of others for thousands of years Potts et al.
However, modern technology and social change have made abortion an essential component of modern health care. However, abortion has become a political issue in American life and a flash point for disagreements about the role of women and individual autonomy in life decisions.
Definition of Abortion The classic definition of abortion is "expulsion of the fetus before it is viable. Before modern methods of abortion, this sometimes meant the introduction of foreign objects such as catheters into the uterus to disrupt the placenta and embryo or fetus so that a Social problems abortion would result.
Although these methods can be effective, they may also result in death of the woman if her uterus is ruptured or if some of the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus enters her blood stream. From the Colonial period to the early twentieth century in America, primitive methods such as these were used along with the introduction of foreign objects into the uterus wooden sticks, knitting needles, catheters, etc.
In modern American society, abortions are performed surgically by physicians or other trained personnel experienced in this technique, making the procedure much safer than when primitive methods were used. The goal of induced abortion still remains the same: Interrupt the pregnancy so that the woman will not continue to term and deliver a baby.
One problem with the classical definition of abortion is the changing definition of viability the ability to live outside the womb. Premature birth is historically associated with high death and disability rates for babies born alive, but medical advances of the twentieth century have made it possible to save the lives of babies born after only thirty weeks of pregnancy when the usual pregnancy lasts forty weeks.
Some infants born at twenty-six to twenty-seven weeks or even younger have survived through massive intervention and support. At the same time, abortions are now sometimes performed at up to twenty-five to twenty-six weeks of pregnancy. Therefore, the old definition of viability is not helpful in determining whether an abortion has been or should be performed Grobstein Reasons for Abortions There are probably as many reasons for abortions as there are women who have them.
Some pregnancies result from rape or incest, and women who are victims of these assaults often seek an abortion.
Most women, however, decide to have an abortion because the pregnancy represents a problem in their lives. Some women feel emotionally unprepared to enter parenthood and raise a child; they are too young or do not have a reliable partner with whom to raise a child.
Many young women in high school or college find themselves pregnant and must choose between continuing the education they need to survive economically or dropping out to have a baby.
Young couples who are just starting their lives and want children might prefer to develop financial security first to provide better care for their future children.
Sometimes people enter into a casual sexual relationship that leads to pregnancy with no prospect of marriage, but even if the sexual relationship is more than casual, abortion is sometimes sought because a woman decides that the social status of the male is inappropriate. Some of the most difficult and painful choices are faced by women who are happily pregnant for the first time late in the reproductive years thirty-five to forty-five but discover in late pregnancy twenty-six or more weeks that the fetus is so defective it may not live or have a normal life.
Even worse is a diagnosis of abnormalities that may or may not result in problems after birth. Some women and couples in this situation choose to have a late abortion Hern et al. In some cases, a woman must have an abortion to survive a pregnancy.
An example is the diabetic woman who develops a condition in pregnancy called hyperemesis gravidarum uncontrollable vomiting associated with pregnancy. She becomes malnourished and dehydrated in spite of intravenous therapy and other treatment, threatening heart failure, among other things.
Only an abortion will cure this life-threatening condition. In other cases, an abortion is sought because the sex of the fetus has been determined through amniocentesis or ultrasound examination and it is not the desired sex.Menu Abortion access: All sides of the issue. About abortion: Abortion is a very active topic on the Internet.
Google found over million hits for "pro-life" and . ABORTION: Medical and Social Aspects Warren M.
Karen is She finished college last year and landed the job of her dreams in graphic arts. The work is creative and challenging. Karen is pretty and has many friends so . Menu Abortion access: All sides of the issue. About abortion: Abortion is a very active topic on the Internet. Google found over million hits for "pro-life" and . A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of individuals within a society. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's control, and is the source of a conflicting opinion on the grounds of what is perceived as a morally just personal life or societal order. [clarification needed] Social issues are distinguished from economic issues; however.
Hern, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. originally published in Encyclopedia of Marriage and the Family, Volume I David Levinson. Vocabulary list for technical signs - Social work ande vocational rehabilitation. A major consequence of unplanned pregnancy, during or after the teen years, is abortion.
As noted earlier, about 40 percent of all unplanned pregnancies are terminated by an abortion.
Joe Biden on Abortion: Outgoing Vice President; previously Democratic Senator (DE) Click here for 23 full quotes by Joe Biden OR click here for Joe Biden on other issues.. I . ABORTION: Medical and Social Aspects Warren M.
Hern, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Women who have this kind of support, as well as support from family and friends, generally have few psychological problems following abortion. On the other hand, women who have received hostile, punitive messages about the pregnancy and the decision to have an abortion.